What are templates in C++? Its uses and types?

What are templates in C++? Its uses and types?

Templates are the foundation of generic programming, which involves writing code in a way that is independent of any particular type.

A template is a blueprint or formula for creating a generic class or a function. The library containers like iterators and algorithms are examples of generic programming and have been developed using template concept.

There is a single definition of each container, such as vector, but we can define many different kinds of vectors for example, vector <int> or vector <string>.

You can use templates to define functions as well as classes, let us see how do they work:

Function Template:

The general form of a template function definition is shown here:

template <class type> ret-type func-name(parameter list) { // body of function }

Here, type is a placeholder name for a data type used by the function. This name can be used within the function definition.

The following is the example of a function template that returns the maximum of two values:

#include <iostream> 
#include <string> 
using namespace std; 
template <typename T> inline T const& Max (T const& a, T const& b) 
{ return a < b ? b:a; } 
int main () 
int i = 39; 
int j = 20; 
cout << "Max(i, j): " << Max(i, j) << endl; 
double f1 = 13.5; 
double f2 = 20.7; 
cout << "Max(f1, f2): " << Max(f1, f2) << endl; 
string s1 = "Hello"; 
string s2 = "World";
 cout << "Max(s1, s2): " << Max(s1, s2) << endl; 
return 0; 

If we compile and run above code, this would produce the following result:

Max(i, j): 39 Max(f1, f2): 20.7 Max(s1, s2): World

Class Template:

Just as we can define function templates, we can also define class templates. The general form of a generic class declaration is shown here:

template <class type> class class-name { . . . }

Here, type is the placeholder type name, which will be specified when a class is instantiated. You can define more than one generic data type by using a comma-separated list.

Following is the example to define class Stack<> and implement generic methods to push and pop the elements from the stack:

#include <iostream> 
#include <vector> 
#include <cstdlib> 
#include <string> 
#include <stdexcept> 
using namespace std; 
template <class T> class Stack 
    private: vector<T> elems; // elements 
    public: void push(T const&); // push element 
    void pop(); // pop element 
    T top() const; // return top element 
    bool empty() const{ 
        // return true if empty. 
        return elems.empty(); 
    }; template <class T> 
    void Stack<T>::push (T const& elem) 
        // append copy of passed element 
    template <class T> void Stack<T>::pop () 
        if (elems.empty()) { throw out_of_range("Stack<>::pop(): empty stack"); } 
        // remove last element 
    } template <class T> T Stack<T>::top () const 
    { if (elems.empty()) { throw out_of_range("Stack<>::top(): empty stack"); } 
    // return copy of last element 
    return elems.back(); 
    int main() 
    { try { Stack<int> intStack; 
    // stack of ints 
    Stack<string> stringStack; 
    // stack of strings 
    // manipulate int stack intStack.push(7); 
    cout << intStack.top() <<endl; // manipulate string stack 
    stringStack.push("hello"); cout << stringStack.top() << std::endl; stringStack.pop(); stringStack.pop(); } catch (exception const& ex) { cerr << "Exception: " << ex.what() <<endl; return -1; } }

If we compile and run above code, this would produce the following result:

7 hello Exception: Stack<>::pop(): empty stack

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